Timings for primitive_action.v

(* (c) Copyright 2006-2015 Microsoft Corporation and Inria.                  *)
(* Distributed under the terms of CeCILL-B.                                  *)
Require Import mathcomp.ssreflect.ssreflect.
From mathcomp
Require Import ssrbool ssrfun eqtype ssrnat.
From mathcomp
Require Import div seq fintype tuple finset.
From mathcomp
Require Import fingroup action gseries.

(* n-transitive and primitive actions:                                        *)
(*  [primitive A, on S | to] <=>                                              *)
(*       A acts on S in a primitive manner, i.e., A is transitive on S and    *)
(*       A does not act on any nontrivial partition of S.                     *)
(*  imprimitivity_system A to S Q <=>                                         *)
(*       Q is a non-trivial primitivity system for the action of A on S via   *)
(*       to, i.e., Q is a non-trivial partiiton of S on which A acts.         *)
(*       to * n == in the %act scope, the total action induced by the total   *)
(*                 action to on n.-tuples. via n_act to n.                    *)
(*  n.-dtuple S == the set of n-tuples with distinct values in S.             *)
(*  [transitive^n A, on S | to] <=>                                           *)
(*       A is n-transitive on S, i.e., A is transitive on n.-dtuple S         *)
(*              == the set of n-tuples with distinct values in S.             *)

Set Implicit Arguments.
Unset Strict Implicit.
Unset Printing Implicit Defensive.

Import GroupScope.

Section PrimitiveDef.

Variables (aT : finGroupType) (sT : finType).
Variables (A : {set aT}) (S : {set sT}) (to : {action aT &-> sT}).

Definition imprimitivity_system Q :=
  [&& partition Q S, [acts A, on Q | to^*] & 1 < #|Q| < #|S|].

Definition primitive :=
  [transitive A, on S | to] && ~~ [exists Q, imprimitivity_system Q].

End PrimitiveDef.

Arguments Scope imprimitivity_system
  [_ _ group_scope group_scope action_scope group_scope].
Arguments Scope primitive [_ _ group_scope group_scope action_scope].

Notation "[ 'primitive' A , 'on' S | to ]" := (primitive A S to)
  (at level 0, format "[ 'primitive'  A ,  'on'  S  |  to ]") : form_scope.

Prenex Implicits imprimitivity_system.

Section Primitive.

Variables (aT : finGroupType) (sT : finType).
Variables (G : {group aT}) (to : {action aT &-> sT}) (S : {set sT}).

Lemma trans_prim_astab x :
    x \in S -> [transitive G, on S | to] ->
  [primitive G, on S | to] = maximal_eq 'C_G[x | to] G.
move=> Sx trG; rewrite /primitive trG negb_exists.
apply/forallP/maximal_eqP=> /= [primG | [_ maxCx] Q].
  split=> [|H sCH sHG]; first exact: subsetIl.
  pose X := orbit to H x; pose Q := orbit (to^*)%act G X.
  have Xx: x \in X by apply: orbit_refl.
  have defH: 'N_(G)(X | to) = H.
    have trH: [transitive H, on X | to] by apply/imsetP; exists x.
    have sHN: H \subset 'N_G(X | to) by rewrite subsetI sHG atrans_acts.
    move/(subgroup_transitiveP Xx sHN): (trH) => /= <-.
      by rewrite mulSGid //= setIAC subIset ?sCH.
    apply/imsetP; exists x => //; apply/eqP.
    by rewrite eqEsubset imsetS // acts_sub_orbit ?subsetIr.
  have [|/proper_card oCH] := eqVproper sCH; [by left | right].
  apply/eqP; rewrite eqEcard sHG leqNgt.
  apply: contra {primG}(primG Q) => oHG; apply/and3P; split; last first.
  - rewrite card_orbit astab1_set defH -(@ltn_pmul2l #|H|) ?Lagrange // muln1.
    rewrite oHG -(@ltn_pmul2l #|H|) ?Lagrange // -(card_orbit_stab to G x).
    by rewrite -(atransP trG x Sx) mulnC card_orbit ltn_pmul2r.
  - by apply/actsP=> a Ga Y; apply/orbit_transl/mem_orbit.
  apply/and3P; split; last 1 first.
  - rewrite orbit_sym; apply/imsetP=> [[a _]] /= defX.
    by rewrite defX /setact imset0 inE in Xx.
  - apply/eqP/setP=> y; apply/bigcupP/idP=> [[_ /imsetP[a Ga ->]] | Sy].
      case/imsetP=> _ /imsetP[b Hb ->] ->.
      by rewrite !(actsP (atrans_acts trG)) //; apply: subsetP Hb.
    case: (atransP2 trG Sx Sy) => a Ga ->.
    by exists ((to^*)%act X a); apply: mem_imset; rewrite // orbit_refl.
  apply/trivIsetP=> _ _ /imsetP[a Ga ->] /imsetP[b Gb ->].
  apply: contraR => /exists_inP[_ /imsetP[_ /imsetP[a1 Ha1 ->] ->]].
  case/imsetP=> _ /imsetP[b1 Hb1 ->] /(canLR (actK _ _)) /(canLR (actK _ _)).
  rewrite -(canF_eq (actKV _ _)) -!actM (sameP eqP astab1P) => /astab1P Cab.
  rewrite astab1_set (subsetP (subsetIr G _)) //= defH.
  rewrite -(groupMr _ (groupVr Hb1)) -mulgA -(groupMl _ Ha1).
  by rewrite (subsetP sCH) // inE Cab !groupM ?groupV // (subsetP sHG).
apply/and3P=> [[/and3P[/eqP defS tIQ ntQ]]]; set sto := (to^*)%act => actQ.
rewrite !ltnNge -negb_or => /orP[].
pose X := pblock Q x; have Xx: x \in X by rewrite mem_pblock defS.
have QX: X \in Q by rewrite pblock_mem ?defS.
have toX Y a: Y \in Q -> a \in G -> to x a \in Y -> sto X a = Y.
  move=> QY Ga Yxa; rewrite -(contraNeq (trivIsetP tIQ Y (sto X a) _ _)) //.
    by rewrite (actsP actQ).
  by apply/existsP; exists (to x a); rewrite /= Yxa; apply: mem_imset.
have defQ: Q = orbit (to^*)%act G X.
  apply/eqP; rewrite eqEsubset andbC acts_sub_orbit // QX.
  apply/subsetP=> Y QY.
  have /set0Pn[y Yy]: Y != set0 by apply: contraNneq ntQ => <-.
  have Sy: y \in S by rewrite -defS; apply/bigcupP; exists Y.
  have [a Ga def_y] := atransP2 trG Sx Sy.
  by apply/imsetP; exists a; rewrite // (toX Y) // -def_y.
rewrite defQ card_orbit; case: (maxCx 'C_G[X | sto]%G) => /= [||->|->].
- apply/subsetP=> a /setIP[Ga cxa]; rewrite inE Ga /=.
  by apply/astab1P; rewrite (toX X) // (astab1P cxa).
- exact: subsetIl.
- by right; rewrite -card_orbit (atransP trG).
by left; rewrite indexgg.

Lemma prim_trans_norm (H : {group aT}) :
    [primitive G, on S | to] -> H <| G ->
  H \subset 'C_G(S | to) \/ [transitive H, on S | to].
move=> primG /andP[sHG nHG]; rewrite subsetI sHG.
have [trG _] := andP primG; have [x Sx defS] := imsetP trG.
move: primG; rewrite (trans_prim_astab Sx) // => /maximal_eqP[_].
case/(_ ('C_G[x | to] <*> H)%G) => /= [||cxH|]; first exact: joing_subl.
- by rewrite join_subG subsetIl.
- have{cxH} cxH: H \subset 'C_G[x | to] by rewrite -cxH joing_subr.
  rewrite subsetI sHG /= in cxH; left; apply/subsetP=> a Ha.
  apply/astabP=> y Sy; have [b Gb ->] := atransP2 trG Sx Sy.
  rewrite actCJV [to x (a ^ _)](astab1P _) ?(subsetP cxH) //.
  by rewrite -mem_conjg (normsP nHG).
rewrite norm_joinEl 1?subIset ?nHG //.
by move/(subgroup_transitiveP Sx sHG trG); right.

End Primitive.

Section NactionDef.

Variables (gT : finGroupType) (sT : finType).
Variables (to : {action gT &-> sT}) (n :  nat).

Definition n_act (t : n.-tuple sT) a := [tuple of map (to^~ a) t].

Fact n_act_is_action : is_action setT n_act.
by apply: is_total_action => [t|t a b]; apply: eq_from_tnth => i;
    rewrite !tnth_map ?act1 ?actM.

Canonical n_act_action := Action n_act_is_action.

End NactionDef.

Notation "to * n" := (n_act_action to n) : action_scope.

Section NTransitive.

Variables (gT : finGroupType) (sT : finType).
Variables (n :  nat) (A : {set gT}) (S : {set sT}) (to : {action gT &-> sT}).

Definition dtuple_on := [set t : n.-tuple sT | uniq t & t \subset S].
Definition ntransitive := [transitive A, on dtuple_on | to * n].

Lemma dtuple_onP t :
  reflect (injective (tnth t) /\ forall i, tnth t i \in S) (t \in dtuple_on).
rewrite inE subset_all -map_tnth_enum.
case: (uniq _) / (injectiveP (tnth t)) => f_inj; last by right; case.
rewrite -[all _ _]negbK -has_predC has_map has_predC negbK /=.
by apply: (iffP allP) => [Sf|[]//]; split=> // i; rewrite Sf ?mem_enum.

Lemma n_act_dtuple t a :
  a \in 'N(S | to) -> t \in dtuple_on -> n_act to t a \in dtuple_on.
move/astabsP=> toSa /dtuple_onP[t_inj St]; apply/dtuple_onP.
split=> [i j | i]; rewrite !tnth_map ?[_ \in S]toSa //.
by move/act_inj; apply: t_inj.

End NTransitive.

Arguments Scope dtuple_on [_ nat_scope group_scope].
Arguments Scope ntransitive
  [_ _ nat_scope group_scope group_scope action_scope].
Implicit Arguments n_act [gT sT n].

Notation "n .-dtuple ( S )" := (dtuple_on n S)
  (at level 8, format "n .-dtuple ( S )") : set_scope.

Notation "[ 'transitive' ^ n A , 'on' S | to ]" := (ntransitive n A S to)
  (at level 0, n at level 8,
   format "[ 'transitive' ^ n  A ,  'on'  S  |  to ]") : form_scope.

Section NTransitveProp.

Variables (gT : finGroupType) (sT : finType).
Variables (to : {action gT &-> sT}) (G : {group gT}) (S : {set sT}).

Lemma card_uniq_tuple n (t : n.-tuple sT) : uniq t -> #|t| = n.
Proof. by move/card_uniqP->; apply: size_tuple. Qed.

Lemma n_act0 (t : 0.-tuple sT) a : n_act to t a = [tuple].
Proof. exact: tuple0. Qed.

Lemma dtuple_on_add n x (t : n.-tuple sT) :
  ([tuple of x :: t] \in n.+1.-dtuple(S)) =
     [&& x \in S, x \notin t & t \in n.-dtuple(S)].
Proof. by rewrite !inE memtE !subset_all -!andbA; do !bool_congr. Qed.

Lemma dtuple_on_add_D1 n x (t : n.-tuple sT) :
  ([tuple of x :: t] \in n.+1.-dtuple(S))
     = (x \in S) && (t \in n.-dtuple(S :\ x)).
rewrite dtuple_on_add !inE (andbCA (~~ _)); do 2!congr (_ && _).
rewrite -!(eq_subset (in_set (mem t))) setDE setIC subsetI; congr (_ && _).
by rewrite -setCS setCK sub1set !inE.

Lemma dtuple_on_subset n (S1 S2 : {set sT}) t :
  S1 \subset S2 -> t \in n.-dtuple(S1) -> t \in n.-dtuple(S2).
Proof. by move=> sS12; rewrite !inE => /andP[-> /subset_trans]; apply. Qed.

Lemma n_act_add n x (t : n.-tuple sT) a :
  n_act to [tuple of x :: t] a = [tuple of to x a :: n_act to t a].
Proof. exact: val_inj. Qed.

Lemma ntransitive0 : [transitive^0 G, on S | to].
have dt0: [tuple] \in 0.-dtuple(S) by rewrite inE memtE subset_all.
apply/imsetP; exists [tuple of Nil sT] => //.
by apply/setP=> x; rewrite [x]tuple0 orbit_refl.

Lemma ntransitive_weak k m :
  k <= m -> [transitive^m G, on S | to] -> [transitive^k G, on S | to].
move/subnKC <-; rewrite addnC; elim: {m}(m - k) => // m IHm.
rewrite addSn => tr_m1; apply: IHm; move: {m k}(m + k) tr_m1 => m tr_m1.
have ext_t t: t \in dtuple_on m S ->
  exists x, [tuple of x :: t] \in m.+1.-dtuple(S).
- move=> dt.
  have [sSt | /subsetPn[x Sx ntx]] := boolP (S \subset t); last first.
    by exists x; rewrite dtuple_on_add andbA /= Sx ntx.
  case/imsetP: tr_m1 dt => t1; rewrite !inE => /andP[Ut1 St1] _ /andP[Ut _].
  have /subset_leq_card := subset_trans St1 sSt.
  by rewrite !card_uniq_tuple // ltnn.
case/imsetP: (tr_m1); case/tupleP=> [x t]; rewrite dtuple_on_add.
case/and3P=> Sx ntx dt; set xt := [tuple of _] => tr_xt.
apply/imsetP; exists t => //.
apply/setP=> u; apply/idP/imsetP=> [du | [a Ga ->{u}]].
  case: (ext_t u du) => y; rewrite tr_xt.
  by case/imsetP=> a Ga [_ def_u]; exists a => //; apply: val_inj.
have: n_act to xt a \in dtuple_on _ S by rewrite tr_xt mem_imset.
by rewrite n_act_add dtuple_on_add; case/and3P.

Lemma ntransitive1 m :
  0 < m -> [transitive^m G, on S | to] -> [transitive G, on S | to].
have trdom1 x: ([tuple x] \in 1.-dtuple(S)) = (x \in S).
  by rewrite dtuple_on_add !inE memtE subset_all andbT.
move=> m_gt0 /(ntransitive_weak m_gt0) {m m_gt0}.
case/imsetP; case/tupleP=> x t0; rewrite {t0}(tuple0 t0) trdom1 => Sx trx.
apply/imsetP; exists x => //; apply/setP=> y; rewrite -trdom1 trx.
by apply/imsetP/imsetP=> [[a ? [->]]|[a ? ->]]; exists a => //; apply: val_inj.

Lemma ntransitive_primitive m :
  1 < m -> [transitive^m G, on S | to] -> [primitive G, on S | to].
move=> lt1m /(ntransitive_weak lt1m) {m lt1m}tr2G.
have trG: [transitive G, on S | to] by apply: ntransitive1 tr2G.
have [x Sx _]:= imsetP trG; rewrite (trans_prim_astab Sx trG).
apply/maximal_eqP; split=> [|H]; first exact: subsetIl; rewrite subEproper.
case/predU1P; first by [left]; case/andP=> sCH /subsetPn[a Ha nCa] sHG.
right; rewrite -(subgroup_transitiveP Sx sHG trG _) ?mulSGid //.
have actH := subset_trans sHG (atrans_acts trG).
pose y := to x a; have Sy: y \in S by rewrite (actsP actH).
have{nCa} yx: y != x by rewrite inE (sameP astab1P eqP) (subsetP sHG) in nCa.
apply/imsetP; exists y => //; apply/eqP.
rewrite eqEsubset acts_sub_orbit // Sy andbT; apply/subsetP=> z Sz.
have [-> | zx] := eqVneq z x; first by rewrite orbit_sym mem_orbit.
pose ty := [tuple y; x]; pose tz := [tuple z; x].
have [Sty Stz]: ty \in 2.-dtuple(S) /\ tz \in 2.-dtuple(S).
  by rewrite !inE !memtE !subset_all /= !mem_seq1 !andbT; split; apply/and3P.
case: (atransP2 tr2G Sty Stz) => b Gb [->] /esym/astab1P cxb.
by rewrite mem_orbit // (subsetP sCH) // inE Gb.

End NTransitveProp.

Section NTransitveProp1.

Variables (gT : finGroupType) (sT : finType).
Variables (to : {action gT &-> sT}) (G : {group gT}) (S : {set sT}).

(* This is the forward implication of Aschbacher (15.12).1  *)
Theorem stab_ntransitive m x :
    0 < m -> x \in S -> [transitive^m.+1 G, on S | to] ->
  [transitive^m 'C_G[x | to], on S :\ x | to].
move=> m_gt0 Sx Gtr; have sSxS: S :\ x \subset S by rewrite subsetDl.
case: (imsetP Gtr); case/tupleP=> x1 t1; rewrite dtuple_on_add.
case/and3P=> Sx1 nt1x1 dt1 trt1; have Gtr1 := ntransitive1 (ltn0Sn _) Gtr.
case: (atransP2 Gtr1 Sx1 Sx) => // a Ga x1ax.
pose t := n_act to t1 a.
have dxt: [tuple of x :: t] \in m.+1.-dtuple(S).
  by rewrite trt1 x1ax; apply/imsetP; exists a => //; apply: val_inj.
apply/imsetP; exists t; first by rewrite dtuple_on_add_D1 Sx in dxt.
apply/setP=> t2; apply/idP/imsetP => [dt2|[b]].
  have: [tuple of x :: t2] \in dtuple_on _ S by rewrite dtuple_on_add_D1 Sx.
  case/(atransP2 Gtr dxt)=> b Gb [xbx tbt2].
  by exists b; [rewrite inE Gb; apply/astab1P | apply: val_inj].
case/setIP=> Gb /astab1P xbx ->{t2}.
rewrite n_act_dtuple //; last by rewrite dtuple_on_add_D1 Sx in dxt.
apply/astabsP=> y; rewrite !inE -{1}xbx (inj_eq (act_inj _ _)).
by rewrite (actsP (atrans_acts Gtr1)).

(* This is the converse implication of Aschbacher (15.12).1  *)
Theorem stab_ntransitiveI m x :
     x \in S -> [transitive G, on S | to] ->
     [transitive^m 'C_G[x | to], on S :\ x | to] ->
  [transitive^m.+1 G, on S | to].
move=> Sx Gtr Gntr.
have t_to_x t: t \in m.+1.-dtuple(S) ->
  exists2 a, a \in G & exists2 t', t' \in m.-dtuple(S :\ x)
                                 & t = n_act to [tuple of x :: t'] a.
- case/tupleP: t => y t St.
  have Sy: y \in S by rewrite dtuple_on_add_D1 in St; case/andP: St.
  rewrite -(atransP Gtr _ Sy) in Sx; case/imsetP: Sx => a Ga toya.
  exists a^-1; first exact: groupVr.
  exists (n_act to t a); last by rewrite n_act_add toya !actK.
  move/(n_act_dtuple (subsetP (atrans_acts Gtr) a Ga)): St.
  by rewrite n_act_add -toya dtuple_on_add_D1 => /andP[].
case: (imsetP Gntr) => t dt S_tG; pose xt := [tuple of x :: t].
have dxt: xt \in m.+1.-dtuple(S) by rewrite dtuple_on_add_D1 Sx.
apply/imsetP; exists xt => //; apply/setP=> t2.
apply/esym; apply/imsetP/idP=> [[a Ga ->] | ].
  by apply: n_act_dtuple; rewrite // (subsetP (atrans_acts Gtr)).
case/t_to_x=> a2 Ga2 [t2']; rewrite S_tG.
case/imsetP=> a /setIP[Ga /astab1P toxa] -> -> {t2 t2'}.
by exists (a * a2); rewrite (groupM, actM) //= !n_act_add toxa.

End NTransitveProp1.